Yes, this keeps the rain off without leaking.
Arcadia™ / Verona™ / Vitoria™ / Palma™ allow 15% light transmission
Arizona™ / Atlas™ allow 10% light transmission
Yes, it certainly should withstand its impact and maintain its integrity. It will not shatter if an acorn hits it, having said that, it is not recommended to be built directly under a tree.
The carport needs to be properly installed on a concrete slab, concrete footings or deck.
The base of the posts has to be anchored onto a solid base / footing and fastened with the foot pads kit.
Yes, it is possible to mount on a deck. Please consult with a professional with regards to the appropriate bolts and screws and masonry anchors.